What is Keratoconus?

Keratoconus is an eye condition characterized by the progressive bulging and thinning of the normally dome-shaped cornea. It is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 1 in 2000 individuals, and typically affects both eyes. As the cornea weakens and changes shape, it can cause distorted and blurry vision, often requiring specialized treatment and management to optimize visual clarity and maintain eye health.

What are the symptoms of Keratoconus?

Symptoms are first noticed in the late teens or early '20s and tend to progress slowly over the next 10 to 20 years.Depending on its progression and severity, Keratoconus can have mild to severe effects on your vision. These include:

Mild blurring and distortion of vision



Frequent changes in spectacle prescription

Sudden worsening or clouding of vision

What are the risk factors of Keratoconus?

Having a family history of Keratoconus

Rubbing your Eyes Vigorously

Having certain conditions, such as retinitis pigmentosa, Down syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, hay fever and asthma.

How is Keratoconus Diagnosed?

After careful Examination by our Experienced team of Optometrists & Doctors, diagnosis is by:

Slit-lamp Microscope:
The changes in the curvature of the cornea are seen.

Retinoscope and Keratometer
Measures spectacle power and corneal curvature.

Corneal Topographer:
Highly accurate diagnostic device. It makes a map of the corneal surface and accurately measures the Keratoconus protrusion.

Can Keratoconus be treated, and what are the Modalities?

Yes! It can be treated by the following:

1. Spectacles:
The patient can be comfortable in the early stage of Keratoconus with glasses.

2.Contact Lens:
Early Keratoconus can be managed by giving rigid Contact Lenses to the patient. Contact lenses correct the irregularity of the cornea and provide a better quality of vision.

Sometimes Rigid contact lenses in severe cases do not get optimal fit, but special contact lenses are available for such patients.

What are the Different Types of Contact Lens for Keratoconus correction?

A. Rigid Gas Permeable Contact Lens (also called RGP or GP Contact lens)
is made from firm plastic. GP contact lenses allow oxygen to pass directly through the lens to the eye so that the cornea can breathe.

B. Rose K Lens:
closely mimics the cone-like shape of the cornea for every stage of the condition, resulting in a comfortable fitting lens for patients and better sight (visual acuity). The lenses are designed using complex computer models and manufactured on special computerized lathes.

C. Kerasoft is an entirely customizable soft contact lens system
fitting for irregular corneas and is available in a choice of high water content Silicone Hydrogel material.

What are The Surgical Methods for Keratoconus Repair?

1. Penetrating Keratoplasty(PKP):
is an option in Keratoconus patients with progressing Keratoconus and if non-surgical methods including Contact lenses do not provide adequate visual acuity. In addition, central Corneal Opacity involving the visual axis is also an indication for PKP.

2. Intacs:
is a method of inserting thin plastic, semi-circular rings inserted in the mid-layer of the cornea to improve vision, specifically in certain selective patients for long term vision correction..

3. Deep Anterior lamellar Keratoplasty (DALK):
is a newer technique that preserves the innermost corneal layer, thus avoiding rejection after Penetrating Keratoplasty (PKP). In addition, the relative risk of secondary Glaucoma is avoided in DALK since steroids can be discontinued early in the post-op period.

4. Collagen Cross-Linking (C3R):
This Treatment measure stops Keratoconus from progressing. It is based on collagen cross-linking with ultra­violet A (UVA, 365 nm) and Riboflavin (vitamin B2, a photosensitizing agent). The above changes the biomechanical property of the cornea, increasing its strength by almost 300%. This increase in corneal strength has been shown to arrest the progression of Keratoconus.

Who are the Suitable Candidates for C3R?

The patient must be a proven case of Keratoconus with the documented progression of the disease.

The patient's corneal thickness must be at least 400 microns.

The patient should not be pregnant or nursing to prevent Keratoconus from getting worse.

The entire procedure takes Less than an hour and is done under topical eye drops without injection. The outer layer of the cornea needs to be scrapped to make the penetration og Riboflavin. This can cause irritation and pain therefore the eye needs to be patched for a day or two

Should I do a Follow-up after undergoing Treatment for Keratoconus?

Complete Ophthalmic examination, and corneal topography, should be done every 6 months to 1 year.

Monitoring spectacle power or contact lens (whichever you are using) is mandatory.